The Hopkin Thomas Story




Archer, Robert F., A History of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Heimburger House Publishing Co., Forest Park, Illinois, 1977.

a)       Chapter 1 – Origin of the LVRR.


Ardan, Brian, Images of America – The Anthracite Coal Region’s Slavic Community, Acadia Publishing, Charleston, SC, 2009.


Armes, Ethel, The Story of Coal and Iron in Alabama, Facsimile Edition, Bookkeepers Press, Birmingham, Alabama, 1972. (Original ed. Pub. 1910)

a. Giles Edwards


Bartholomew, Craig L. and Lance E. Metz, The Anthracite Iron Industry of the Lehigh Valley, Center for Canal History and Technology, Harmony Press, Phillipsburg, NJ, 1988

a. Lehigh, Car Wheel & Axle


Beaver Meadow Railroad & Coal Co. Minute Books, Collection MG-274 (2 Vols.), State of Pennsylvania Archives, Harrisburg, Pa.

                      a. Selected Excerpts


Beaver Meadow Railroad & Coal Co. Annual Reports, Collection MG-274 (2 Vols.), State of Pennsylvania Archives, Harrisburg, Pa.

a.        Selected Reports


Beers, F. W. and A. B. Cochran, County Atlas of Schuylkill Pennsylvania,  F. W. Beers & Co., New York , 1875.


Bining, Arthur Cecil, Pennsylvania Iron Manufacture in the Eighteenth Century, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, 1987.


Brenckman, Fred, History of Carbon County Pennsylvania, J. J. Hungesser, Publisher, Harrisburg, Pa., 1913

a.        Steam and Electric Railroads

b.       Beaver Meadow Borough

c.        Parryville Borough

d.       Weatherly Borough


Brown, William H. The History of the First Locomotives In America From Original Documents And The Testimony Of Living Witnesses, D. Appleton And Company, New York, 1871.


Bugbee, A. Newton , Jr, Hopkin Thomas and Family,  Presentation given to the Catasauqua Preservation Society, April 21, 1998


Burkhardt, Roberta and Judy Gemmel, ed., A Profile of the Burroughs, Catasauqua, Lehigh County, Pa.; North Catasauqua, Northampton County, Pa., Historic Catasauqua Preservation Association, Gillespie Printing, Catasauqua, 1992.

a.      The Davies and Thomas Company

b.      McKee-Fuller Company

c.      The Bryden Horseshoe Co.

d.       The Catasauqua Manufacturing Co.


Carnegie , Andrew, James Watt, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company. May, 1905.


Carnot, S.. Reflections On The Motive Power Of Heat And On Machines Fitted To Develop This Power, Translated By R. H. Thurston The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers New York 1943, Printed By The Waverly Press, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.


Centennial Anniversary of the First Shipment of Anthracite Coal from the Lehigh Region at Lausanne, PA., Carbon County Historical Society, Mauch Chunk, 1914.


Clark, Daniel Kinnear, "Railway Machinery - A Treatise of the Mechanical Engineering of Railways", Published  by Blackie & Son, 1855

a. Chapter I General History Of The Locomotive, From 1784 Till 1830


Colburn, Zerah, The Locomotive Engine, Henry C. Baird & Co., Philadelphia, 1888.

a.      Chilled cast-iron wheels.

b.      Anthracite-fired engines.

c.      The blast-pipe exhaust.


Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.   Manufacturing and Mercantile Resources Of The Lehigh Valley Including Historical Sketches  of The Prominent Towns -  A Descriptive &  Statistical Review.   Progress. Enterprise. Development.   Industrial Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1881


Corlsen, Carl, Buried Black Treasure, The Story of Pennsylvania Anthracite, Owen Publishing Co., Dansville, NY, 1954.


Coryell, Martin, Performances of the Beaver Meadow Rail Road Company's Locomotive Engine, Letter published in Journal of the Canal Commissioners, Appendix to Vol. II Wm Boas, Publisher, 1840. pp 422 – 424.


Day, Sherman, Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania, George W. Gorton, Publisher, Philadelphia, 1843

a.        Schuylkill County

b.       Beaver Meadow


Directory to the Iron and Steel Works of the United States, The American Iron and Steel Association, Philadelphia, 1884


Dives, Pomeroy & Stewart, History of the County of Schuylkill, 1911


Dyer, Frank Lewis and Martin, Thomas C., Edison, His Life and Inventions, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1990.

a.       Chapt. 19, Magnetic Ore Milling Work, Vol. 2 , pp 474 – 505.


Eggert, Gerald C., The Iron Industry in Pennsylvania, The Pennsylvania Historical Association, Plank’s Suburban Press, Camp Hill, Pa., 1994

a.       The Shift to Anthracite-Fueled Furnaces


Elasa, Madeline, Ed., Iron In the Making, Dowlais Iron Company Letters, 1782 – 1860, County Records Committee of the Glamorgan Quarter Sessions & County Council, 1960


Ellis, Hamilton, The Pictorial Encyclopedia of  Railways, Paul Hamlyn, London, 1968.


Ellis, C. Hamilton, The Lore of the Train, Barnes & Noble, 1995 (orig. pub. 1972)


Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, Vol 14,  Lewis Publishing Co., New York, 1923

a  Andrew M. Eastwick


Evans, Oliver, The Abortion Of The Young Steam Engineer's Guide Containing an investigation of the principles, construction and powers of Steam Engines, Philadelphia, Printed for the author by Fry And Kammerer, 1805


Field, Wells Laflin and Edith Duncan Field, Ancestors of Our Children, Self-published, West Hartford CT, 1978.  Vol 1. Field & allied family ancestors;  Vol 2. Clark & allied family ancestors; Vol. 3. Duncan-McKee family


Firmstone, William, Sketch of Early Anthracite Furnaces, Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 3, October 1874, pp. 252 – 256.


Fox, Martha Capwell,  Catasauqua and North Catasauqua, Arcadia Publishing Co., Charleston, SC, 2002


Freedley, Edwin T., Philadelphia and its Manufacturers: A Handbook Exhibiting the Development, Variety, and Statistics of the Manufacturing Industry of Philadelphia in 1857,  Edward Young, 333 Walnut St., Philadelphia, 1858.

a. The Norris Locomotive Works


Fritz, John, The Autobiography of John Fritz, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1912


Gerard, Felix R., The Lehigh Valley Railroad, 1846 – 1946,  The Newcomen Society, 1946


von Gerstner, Franz Anton Ritter, Early American Railroads (Die inner Communicationen (1842-1843)). Stanford University Press, 1997

                      a. Railroads in the Coal Region


Glace, William. H., Early History and Remeniniscences of Catasauqua in Pennsylvania, Searle and Dressler Co. Inc., Allentown, Pa, 1914



Greater Catasauqua,  A Real Estate Brochure, Lackawanna Land Trust Company, Bridge St., Catasauqua, Pa., ca. 1903


Gordon, Robert B., American Iron, 1607 – 1900, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1996.


Guide-Book of The Lehigh Valley Railroad and Its Several Branches and Connections, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1873

a.     Profile of the Town of Catasauqua

b.    Beaver Meadow

c.     Iron – Appendix B


Hansell, Norris, Josiah White, Quaker Entrepreneur, Canal History and Technology Press, Easton, Pa., 1992


Hart, Robert, "Reminiscences of James Watt:," Transactions of the Glasgow Archĺological Society, 1st Series, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 1-7 (1859).


Harrison, Joseph, The Locomotive Engine and Philadelphia’s Share in its Early Improvements, Geo. Gebbie, Publisher, Philadelphia, 1872


Hasson, Herbert N., The Romance of Steel, The Story of a Thousand Millionaires, A. S. Barnes & Company, New York, 1907


Hawkings, David T., Railway Ancestors, A Guide to the Staff Records of the Railway Companies of England and Wales 1822- 1947, Allan Sutton Publishing Limited, 1995


Hazard, Samuel,  Hazard’s Register of Pennsylvania, , Philadelphia,

a)      Beaver Meadow R. R. 1832 Annual Report, Vol. 11, 1833, pp. 247 – 250.


Hazard, Samuel,  Hazard’s United States Commercial and Statistical Register, Vol. II, Philadelphia, 1840

a)      Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co. Annual Report – 1839.


Heller, William J., ed., History of Northampton County (Pennsylvania) and the Grand Valley of the Lehigh, American Historical Society, 1920.


Henry, M. S., History of the Lehigh Valley, Bixler & Corwin, Easton, Pa., 1860

a)      The Origins of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co.

b)     Profile of the Town of Catasauqua.

c)      The Lehigh Valley Railroad

d)     The Beaver Meadow Railroad



Heydinger,  Earl J., Railroads of the First and Second Anthracite Coal Fields of Pennsylvania, Bulletin of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, Vols. 105 - 110, 1962.


Heydinger,  Earl J., The English Influence on American Railroads, Railway and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 91, 1954.


Historic Catasauqua Preservation Association; website:  Select Newsletter to view historic items.


History of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, A. Warner & Co., Chicago, Ill., 1889.

a. William Richard Jones biography, pp 284 – 285.


Hoffman, John N., Anthracite in the Lehigh Region of Pennsylvania, 1820-45, U. S. National Museum Bulletin 252, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1968


Holton, James L., The Reading Railroad: History of a Coal Age Empire, Vol 1: The Nineteenth Century, Garrigues House, Publishers, Laury's Station, Pa., 1989 (ISBN: 0-9620844-1-7)


Iles, George. Leading American Inventors, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1912.


Illustrated Atlas of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, Reading Publishing Co., Reading, Pa., 1876. Reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc. Evansville, IN, 1977.


Ince, Laurence, Neath Abbey and the Industrial Revolution, Tempus Publishing, Ltd, Gloustershire, Great Britain, 2001.


Jeans, J. S., Jubilee Memorial of the Railway System, A History of the Stockton and Darlington Railway and a Record of its Results, Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1875


Jenkins, Elis ed., Neath and District, A Symposium' Published by the author, Neath, 1974, p 198.


John, A. H., The Industrial Development of South Wales, 1750 – 1850, Cardiff University Press, 1950.

a.        Excerpts on tramroad and iron-making developments.


Johnson, F. C., ed., The Historical Record – The Early History of Wyoming Valley, Volume IV, 1893, pp. 97 – 99.


Johnson, Walter R., Notes on the Use of Anthracite in the Manufacture of Iron, Chas. C. Little and James Brown, Boston, 1841

a.        Manufacture of iron with anthracite coal in Pennsylvania.


Johnson, Walter R., Use of Anthracite Coal in Locomotives, Journal of the Franklin Institute, July 1847.


Jones, Gareth Elwyn, Modern Wales, A Concise History, c.1485 – 1979, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984.


Jordan, John W., Green, Edgar Moore, and Ettinger, George T., Historic Homes and Institutions and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs of The Lehigh Valley, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1905

a.        James Thomas biography, Vol 2, pp. 355-6.

b.       Gen. William Lilly bio, Vol 2, pp. 200-202

c.        Daniel Milson bio. Vol 1, p. 502

d.       Daniel Milson bio, Vol 2, P. 230


Jordan, John W.,  Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York, 1916, 31 Volumes.

a. Ario Pardee biography, Vol. 3

b. James Thomas biography, Vol. 2, p. 683


Journal of the Franklin Institute

a.        Use of Anthracite Coal in Locomotives Walter R. Johnson, July, 1847

b.       Report upon the Use of Anthracite Coal in Locomotive Engines on the Reading Railroad, G. W. Whistler, Jr., 1849


Kelly, M., The Non Rotative Beam Engine, A monograph concerning the history of, and technical information on, the Newcomen, The Boulton & Watt and the Cornish Engines, Camden Miniature Steam Services, Barrow Farm, Rode, Frome, Somerset. BA11 6PS, 2002


Knies, Michael, Coal on the Lehigh, 1790 – 1827, Canal History and Technology Press, Easton, Pa., 2001


Kreutzberg, E., C., Casting Iron Segments for New York Tunnels, The Foundry, Vol 44, 1916, p. 127


Kulp, Randolph L., ed. Railroads in the Lehigh River Valley. Lehigh Valley Chapter National Railway Historical Society, 1962.

a.        The Ironton Railroad Company

b.      Catasauqua And Fogelsville Railroad

c.      Lehigh And New England Railroad Company


Lambert, James F. and Reinhard, Henry J., A History of Catasauqua in Lehigh County Pennsylvania, Searle and Dressler, Allentown, 1914.

a.       Davies and Thomas Company

b.       The Wahneta Silk Company

c.       The Thomas Iron Works

d.       Catasauqua Light & Power

e.       James Thomas biography

f.        Daniel Milson biography

g.       Foreword (Catasauqua Profiles)

h.       Crane Iron Works


Lardner, the Rev. Dionysius. The Steam Engine Familiarly Explained and Illustrated, with additions and notes by James Renwick, LL.D. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1836.

               a. Chapter 13, Steam Navigation and Chapter 14, American Steam Navigation


Lehigh County Government:  Recorder of Deeds Division of the Clerk of Judicial Records, 17. S. Seventh St., Allentown Pa.

               a. Search conducted November 2010 – subject: properties of the Hopkin Thomas family in Catasauqua, Pa.


Lewis, M. J. T. Steam on the Penydarren, The Industrial Railway Record, No. 59, April 1975, pp. 1 – 11.


Llewellyn, Richard,  How Green was My Valley,  Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1992 edition.


Longshore, Alfred, R., Reminiscences of an Early Railroader, Annals of the Sugarloaf Historical Society, Hazleton, Penna., 1935


Lord, John, Capital and Steam Power, London, 1923


Matthews, Alfred and Austin N. Hungerford, History of the Counties of Lehigh & Carbon, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Everts & Richards (Lippincott), Philadelphia 1884

a.        Hopkin Thomas biography

b.       Phillip Hoffecker biography

c.        Crane Iron Works history

d.       Profile of Catasauqua

e.        Discovery of Coal, The Early Operations of the LC & N Co.

f.         Banks Township (inc. Beaver Meadow)

g.       Borough of Weatherly

h.       Beaver Meadow Railroad


Marshall, Thomas H., James Watt, Leonard Parsons Ltd., and Printed in Great Britain by Morrison C Gibb Ltd., Ianfield, Edinburg, 1925


Mellish, Deborah, Walking Tour of Catasauqua, 2014, Website may be accessed here..


Metz, Lance, John Fritz, His Role in the Development of the American Iron and Steel Industry and His Legacy to the Bethlehem Community, 1822 -1913,  The Canal Museum, Easton, Pa., 1987


McVey, John B., A Search for The Neath Abbey Ironworks, 1996, (pdf version).


Middleton, William D., Manhattan Gateway, New York’s Pennsylvania Station,  Kalmabch Books, Waukesha, WI, 1996.

               a.     Under the Rivers


Morton, Eleanor, Josiah White, Prince of Pioneers, Stephen Daye Press, New York, 1946.


Munsell, W. W., History Of Schuylkill County, Pa,with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches 
of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers, W. W. Munsell & Co., 36 Vesey Street, 1881 
Press of George Macnamara, 36 Vesey Street, N.Y.

a.        The Railroad System of Schuylkill County

b.       Development of the Coal Production and Trade In Schuylkill County

c.        Tamaqua Borough


The Pneumatics Of Hero Of Alexandria Translated  from the original Greek and Edited By Bennet Woodcroft Professor Of Machinery in University College, London, Taylor Walton And Maberly Upper Gower Street And Ivy Lane Paternoster Row, 1851


Parsons,  Sir Charles A., K.C.B., The Steam Turbine, Cambridge University Press,  Printed by John Clay, M.A. at the University Press, 1911


Parton, W. Julian, The Death of a Great Company, Reflections on the Decline and Fall of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, Canal History and Technology Press, Easton, Pa., 1986.


Passenger and Immigration Lists: Philadelphia, 1800-1850,  Family Tree Maker CD #359, Broderbund Software, 2000.

               a. Brig Egeria


Peckitt, Leonard, Iron In Industry, Progress Over 100 Years In The Melting Pot,  The Newcomen Society, Baltusrol Club, Short Hills, NJ , May 15, 1940.


Petch, G. A., Some Comments on a Letter of 1833 from the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. to the Stockton & Darlington Ry. in England, Railway & Locomotive Historical Society, Vol. 90, pp 157-161.


Portrait & Biographical Record, Lehigh, Northampton, and Carbon Counties, Chapman Publishing Co., 1894

a.        Hopkin Thomas biography

b.       Owen Liebert biography

c.        William R. Thomas biography

d.       James Thomas biography

e.      George Davies biography

f.        James W. Fuller biography

g.      Daniel Milson biography


Proceedings of Special Meeting of Stockholders to Celebrate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Formation of the Thomas Iron Works, June 1, 1904, pdf


Pursell, Carroll W., Early Stationary Steam Engines in America, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 1969.

a.        Excerpts



Rees, D. Morgan, Mines, Mills and Furnaces: Industrial Archaeology in Wales, London, H.M.S.O, 1969

a. Chapter IV  Ironmaking



Richardson, Richard, Memoir of Josiah White, J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1873.   PDF


Roberts, C. R., J. B. Stoudt,  T. H. Krick, and W. J. Dietrich, History Of Lehigh County Pennsylvania and a Genealogical and Biographical Record of It’s Families, Lehigh Valley Publishing Company, LTD., Allentown, Pa., 1914.

               a. Hopkin Thomas biography

b. George Davies biography

c. Lehigh Car, Wheel and Axle Works

d. James W. Fuller biography

e. The Wahneta Silk Mill

f. James Thomas biography

g. The Crane Iron Works

h. The Davies and Thomas Foundry

i. Leonard Peckitt biography

j. Daniel Davies biography

k. Oliver Williams  biography

l. John Williams biography



Roberts, Ed., Notable Men of Wales, David Thomas, The Father of the Anthracite Iron Trade, The Red Dragon, The National Magazine of Wales, Vol. IV, 1883, Daniel Owen & Co., Cardiff.


Robinson, Eric and A. E. Musson, James Watt and the Steam Revolution,  Adams and Dart, London, 1969


Rolt, L. T. C., The Railway Revolution, George and Robert Stephenson, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1960.

a. The Battle for the Locomotive


Rolt, L. T. C., James Watt, ARCO Publishing Co., Inc. New York, 1963


Rupp, Daniel, History of Northampton, Lehigh, Monroe, Carbon, and Schuylkill        Counties,  G, Hills, Lancaster Pa., 1845

a.        Beaver Meadow.

b.      Tamaqua

c.      Subscriber List


Savery, Thomas, The Miners Friend, LONDON: Printed for S. Crouch, 1702


Serfass, Donald R., Iron Steps, Illustrated History of Tamaqua, Pennsylvania, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-92269, First Printing,1995, Revised Second Edition, 2010..

a.        Tamaqua Iron Works.

b.      Shops of the Little Schuylkill Railroad.

c.      The Flood of 1850.

d.      The First Commercial Railroad


Scharf, J. Thomas and Thomas Wescott, History of Philadelphia, 1609 – 1884, L. H. Everts & Co. Philadelphia, 1884

a.      Excerpt on Garrett & Eastwick


Sinclair, Angus, Development of the Locomotive Engine, Sinclair Publishing Co., New York, 1907.


Smiles, Samuel, Lives of Boulton and Watt, Principally from the SOHO Mss., J. B. Lippincott & Co., London, 1865

The Story of Anthracite
, The Hudson Coal Company, New York, 1932


Swank, James M.,  History of The Manufacture of Iron in All Ages, The American Iron and Steel Association, Philadelphia, 1892


Taber, Thomas T., III Antebellum Railroad Compendium, Muncy, Pennsylnania (Self-published), 2008

               Beaver Meadow Railroad


Taber, Thomas T., III . Railroads of Pennsylvania Encyclopedia and Atlas. 1987


Temin, Peter, Iron and Steel in the Nineteenth Century, An Economic Inquiry, The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964

a.        a Start of an Era

b.       The Hot Blast

c.        The Bessemer Process


Thomas Iron Works, Proceedings of Special Meeting of Stockholders to Celebrate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Formation of the Company, June 1, 1904.


Thomas, Samuel, Reminiscences of the Early Anthracite-Iron Industry, Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. XXIX, 1900.


Thurston, Robert H., A History Of The Growth Of The Steam-Engine, D. Appleton And Company,
 New York,1878.


Trevithick,  Francis, C.E.,  Life of Richard Trevithick, with an Account of His Inventions, E. & F. N. Spon, Charing Cross, London, 1872


Turner, Thomas, The Metallurgy of Iron, Charles Griffin & Co., Limited, Exeter Street, Strand, 1908

a.      The Air Used in the Blast Furnace


Walker. Herbert T., The Evolution Of The American Locomotive, Scientific American, Supplement, April 24, 1897


Warner, Paul T., The Development of the Anthracite-Burning Locomotive, Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 52 pp 11 – 28.


Weigley, Russell F., ed, Philadelphia, A 300-Year History, The Barra Foundation, Murray Printing Co., 1982

a. The Age of Nicholas Biddle 1825 - 1841. 


Welford, Richard,  Men of Mark Twixt Tyne And Tweed, Vol Il of Three Volumes, London: Walter Scotts Ltd., Paternoster Square, and Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. 1895.

a. Timothy Hackworth biography   b. William Hedley biography


Wescott, G. F., ed, The British Railway Locomotive, A Brief Pictorial history of the First Fifty Years of the British Steam railway Locomotive, 1803 – 1853, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958


Westing, Fred, The Locomotives that Baldwin Built, Bonanza Books, New York, 1966

a. Chapters I and II – The Early Years


Whistler, G. W., Jr. Report upon the Use of Anthracite Coal in Locomotive Engines on the Reading Railroad , Journal of The Franklin Institute, Vol. 48, 1849


White, John H., Jr. , A History Of  The American Locomotive Its Development: 1830-1880,  Dover Publications. Inc.,  New York, 1979

               a      The 4–4–0 Locomotive

               b.     The 0-4-0, 0-6-0, and 0-8-0 Locomotives

               c.     Coal-Burning

               d.     Boiler Tubes

               e.     Firebox Construction

               f.     Coal-Burning Fireboxes

               g.     Grates

               h.     Grate Area And Heating Surface

               i.      Blast Pipes

               j.      Running Gear – Suspension

               k.     Cast-Iron Tires

               l.      The Gowan And Marx, 1839


White, John H., Jr., Early American Locomotives, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1972


Wint, Dale Charles, A Concise History of The Old Home Week Celebration, Catasauqua, Pennsylvania, 1914, 1991


Wint, Dale Charles, A History of The Iron Industry and Allied Businesses of The Iron Borough, Catasauqua, Pennsylvania,1993.



Wiley, Samuel T. and Henry W. Rouff, ed, Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, Rush, West & Company, Philadelphia, 1893

a.        History of The Development of The Coal Industry in Schuylkill County

b.       Tamaqua borough


Wilkins, Charles, F.G.S., The History Of Merthyr Tydfil, Joseph Williams And Sons, Printers And Publishers, “Tyst” And “Cenad Hedd” Offices, 1908


Williams, Peter N., David Thomas: Iron Man from Wales, National Welsh-American Foundation, Trucksville, Pa., 1995.


Wright, William, Pictorial History of the Locomotive, Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., 1899. Available on CD at


Yates, W. Ross, Discovery of the Process for Making Anthracite Iron, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. XCVIII, 1974, pp. 206-223


Young, Robert,  Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive, The Hackworth Society, The Book Guild Ltd., Sussex, England, 1923.


Yurko, J., Catasauqua – The Crossroads of the Anthracite Railroads,  Flags, Diamonds, Statues, Vol. 6, Nos. 3 & 4, 1986

a.      Lehigh Valley R. R.

b.      Catasauqua & Fogelsville R. R.

c.      The Ironton R. R.

d.      The Crane R. R.

e.      Lehigh & New England R. R.


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Rev.June 2015